The cyber attack on the government’s National Health Service (NHS) in March was a huge blow to the NHS, but its impact was far from over.
Now it is the subject of a new study from the Centre for Cyber Security and Intelligence (CCSI), which is working to assess the effectiveness of the current system and whether we can do better.
In an article on the CCSI website, Professor David Williams, from the University of Sussex, and his team examined the impact of cyber attacks on health systems across the world.
Williams and his co-authors looked at the number of attacks, the number and type of attacks carried out and the effectiveness and resilience of the systems in different parts of the world that were affected by cyber attacks.
They found that cyber attacks in general were a “significant, pervasive and disruptive threat” and that they were able to affect the systems and health systems in more than 60 countries.
According to the CCSEI, attacks are often conducted through social engineering, hacking or by taking over other systems to gain access to data.
“It is the largest cyber threat of the 21st century,” Williams told The Independent.
The researchers looked at a total of 1,539 health systems, including hospitals, private hospitals, outpatient clinics and community-based care.
Of those, 641 systems were vulnerable to a single cyber attack.
To determine the effectiveness in preventing cyber attacks, Williams and his colleagues examined a total set of data.
They took data from the NHS website, health insurance claims and the NHS IT portal, and analysed the impact each system had on the system being targeted.
Using this information, the researchers determined that the average system’s resilience to cyber attacks was 20 per cent.
But the researchers also looked at other systems, and found that the resilience of a system to cyber attack was significantly lower than the average.
Researchers also looked to the impact cyber attacks had on individual systems.
For example, there were 2,878 individual systems in the NHS in the analysis, which had a combined resilience of 15 per cent to cyber-attacks.
However, there was also a significant increase in the number who were vulnerable overall, with the average resilience of 1.3 per cent, but the number vulnerable to just 0.3 percent of the system’s total capacity.
These figures were lower than average for all the systems analysed.
So the researchers used a technique called “meta-analysis” to examine the effectiveness that each individual system had at mitigating cyber attacks and to determine if we could improve the resilience in a system.
By using this approach, they found that resilience to attacks was significantly higher in a number of systems, but there were areas of weakness.
Among the areas that the researchers looked to was the number-crunching and the analysis of data to determine how many attacks were carried out on a system, which is also a vulnerability that needs to be addressed.
As a result, the authors conclude that there are a number areas where improvements in the resilience and overall resilience of systems can be made.
This new analysis, published in Cybersecurity, will be the first step towards determining the next steps in improving resilience of health systems.
“What we have done is we have identified areas where there is significant resilience, but also areas where we need to take a more holistic view and address a range of vulnerabilities,” Williams said.
He said that this new research was very important because of the impact that cyber-related events can have on individual people.
“The effect of cyber-incidents is really, really profound.
If a health system is not secure, if a system is down, if people don’t feel safe to go about their day, if there is a risk of being injured or a loss of life, then there is an opportunity for a cyber-attack to take place and people’s lives are at risk,” he said.
This is the second time the team have looked at resilience.
Earlier this year, they analysed the resilience levels of systems across Australia, with a focus on the Northern Territory and the Northern Queensland region.
Their research shows that the Northern Territorians had a resilience of 10.5 per cent compared to a resilient 4.3 in the rest of the country.
They also looked into the impact on individual health systems and found the Northern NT had the lowest average resilience to attack.
In Australia, the report also shows that health systems were more resilient than the rest.
At the same time, it also showed that there were systems that had “substantial vulnerabilities”.
“There are many factors that contribute to resilience, such as the vulnerability of the health infrastructure, the availability of personnel and support services, the network and access to IT infrastructure, and the ability to monitor and manage cyber-threat data and attacks,” Williams and co-author John Kelly said.
“However, the resilience found across the whole country, from those in the